|PROSITE documentation PDOC01049|
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (EC 22.214.171.124) (MAP kinases, also called ERKs for extracellularly-regulated kinases) form a group of serine/threonine protein kinases (see <PDOC00100>) that play important roles in signal transduction pathways regulating adaptative response to a wide range of stimuli.
Almost all MAPKs possess a conserved TXY motif in which both the threonine and tyrosine residues are phosphorylated during activation of the enzyme by upstream dual-specificity MAP kinase kinases (MAPKKs).
However the TXY motif is not enough conserved to develop a pattern. The region we selected for our pattern is located just after the TXY motif and contains a F and a C residue that are MAPK-specific. The R and E residues in the first part of our pattern, and the R, D and K residues in the second part, are shared by many additional protein kinases. They have been included in the pattern to eliminate matches from unrelated sequences in the database, and to "anchor" the MAPK-specific F and C residues to this region [3,4].Note:
Does not detect MAPK4/ERK4 and MAPK6/ERK3 which are probably not real MAP kinases.Expert(s) to contact by email:
December 2004 / Pattern and text revised.
PROSITE method (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:
|1||Authors||Cobb M.H., Goldsmith E.J.|
|Title||How MAP kinases are regulated.|
|Source||J. Biol. Chem. 270:14843-14846(1995).|
|2||Authors||Madhani H.D., Fink G.R.|
|Title||The riddle of MAP kinase signaling specificity.|
|Source||Trends Genet. 14:151-155(1998).|
|3||Authors||Nakashima S., Wang S., Hisamoto N., Sakai H., Andoh M., Matsumoto K., Nozawa Y.|
|Title||Molecular cloning and expression of a stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase-related kinase from Tetrahymena cells.|
|Source||J. Biol. Chem. 274:9976-9983(1999).|
|4||Authors||Dorin D., Alano P., Boccaccio I., Ciceron L., Doerig C., Sulpice R., Parzy D., Doerig C.|
|Title||An atypical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) homologue expressed in gametocytes of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Identification of a MAPK signature.|
|Source||J. Biol. Chem. 274:29912-29920(1999).|