Due to scheduled maintenance work, this service may not be available on Monday January 22nd between 08.00 am and 9.00 am CEST.
To improve security and privacy, we are moving our web pages and services from HTTP to HTTPS. To give users of web services time to transition to HTTPS, we will support separate HTTP and HTTPS services until the end of 2017. From January 2018 most HTTP traffic will be automatically redirected to HTTPS. [more...] View this page in https
A number of enzymes, belonging to the lyase class, for which fumarate is a
substrate have been shown [1,2] to share a short conserved sequence around a
methionine which is probably involved in the catalytic activity of this type
of enzymes. These enzymes are:
Fumarase (EC 188.8.131.52) (fumarate hydratase), which catalyzes the reversible
hydration of fumarate to L-malate. There seem to be 2 classes of fumarases:
class I are thermolabile dimeric enzymes (as for example: Escherichia coli
fumC); class II enzymes are thermostable and tetrameric and are found in
prokaryotes (as for example: Escherichia coli fumA and fumB) as well as in
eukaryotes. The sequence of the two classes of fumarases are not closely
Aspartate ammonia-lyase (EC 184.108.40.206) (aspartase), which catalyzes the
reversible conversion of aspartate to fumarate and ammonia. This reaction
is analogous to that catalyzed by fumarase, except that ammonia rather than
water is involved in the trans-elimination reaction.
Arginosuccinase (EC 220.127.116.11) (argininosuccinate lyase), which catalyzes the
formation of arginine and fumarate from argininosuccinate, the last step in
the biosynthesis of arginine.
Adenylosuccinase (EC 18.104.22.168) (adenylosuccinate lyase) , which catalyzes
the eight step in the de novo biosynthesis of purines, the formation of
5'-phosphoribosyl-5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide and fumarate from 1-(5-
phosphoribosyl)-4-(N-succino-carboxamide). That enzyme can also catalyzes
the formation of fumarate and AMP from adenylosuccinate.
Pseudomonas putida 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerase (EC 22.214.171.124)
(3-carboxymuconate lactonizing enzyme) (gene pcaB) , an enzyme involved
in aromatic acids catabolism.
December 2004 / Pattern and text revised.
PROSITE method (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:
Woods S.A., Schwartzbach S.D., Guest J.R.
Two biochemically distinct classes of fumarase in Escherichia coli.
PROSITE is copyright. It is produced by the SIB Swiss Institute
Bioinformatics. There are no restrictions on its use by non-profit
institutions as long as its content is in no way modified. Usage by and
for commercial entities requires a license agreement. For information
about the licensing scheme send an email to
or see: prosite_license.html.