PROSITE documentation PDOC00147
Fumarate lyases signature


A number of enzymes, belonging to the lyase class, for which fumarate is a substrate have been shown [1,2] to share a short conserved sequence around a methionine which is probably involved in the catalytic activity of this type of enzymes. These enzymes are:

  • Fumarase (EC (fumarate hydratase), which catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumarate to L-malate. There seem to be 2 classes of fumarases: class I are thermolabile dimeric enzymes (as for example: Escherichia coli fumC); class II enzymes are thermostable and tetrameric and are found in prokaryotes (as for example: Escherichia coli fumA and fumB) as well as in eukaryotes. The sequence of the two classes of fumarases are not closely related.
  • Aspartate ammonia-lyase (EC (aspartase), which catalyzes the reversible conversion of aspartate to fumarate and ammonia. This reaction is analogous to that catalyzed by fumarase, except that ammonia rather than water is involved in the trans-elimination reaction.
  • Arginosuccinase (EC (argininosuccinate lyase), which catalyzes the formation of arginine and fumarate from argininosuccinate, the last step in the biosynthesis of arginine.
  • Adenylosuccinase (EC (adenylosuccinate lyase) [3], which catalyzes the eight step in the de novo biosynthesis of purines, the formation of 5'-phosphoribosyl-5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide and fumarate from 1-(5- phosphoribosyl)-4-(N-succino-carboxamide). That enzyme can also catalyzes the formation of fumarate and AMP from adenylosuccinate.
  • Pseudomonas putida 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerase (EC (3-carboxymuconate lactonizing enzyme) (gene pcaB) [4], an enzyme involved in aromatic acids catabolism.
Last update:

December 2004 / Pattern and text revised.


Technical section

PROSITE method (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:

FUMARATE_LYASES, PS00163; Fumarate lyases signature  (PATTERN)


1AuthorsWoods S.A. Schwartzbach S.D. Guest J.R.
TitleTwo biochemically distinct classes of fumarase in Escherichia coli.
SourceBiochim. Biophys. Acta 954:14-26(1988).
PubMed ID3282546

2AuthorsWoods S.A. Miles J.S. Guest J.R.
SourceFEMS Microbiol. Lett. 51:181-186(1988).

3AuthorsZalkin H. Dixon J.E.
TitleDe novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis.
SourceProg. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 42:259-287(1992).
PubMed ID1574589

4AuthorsWilliams S.E. Woolridge E.M. Ransom S.C. Landro J.A. Babbitt P.C. Kozarich J.W.
Title3-Carboxy-cis,cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme from Pseudomonas putida is homologous to the class II fumarase family: a new reaction in the evolution of a mechanistic motif.
SourceBiochemistry 31:9768-9776(1992).
PubMed ID1390752

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