PROSITE documentation PDOC00344
Neuromodulin (GAP-43) signatures


Neuromodulin (also known as GAP-43, pp46, B-50, F1, and P-57) [1] is an axonal membrane protein associated with nerve growth. It is a major component of the motile growth cones that form the tips of elongating axons. Neuromodulin is an hydrophilic protein of 210 to 240 amino acid residues, which binds calmodulin and inhibits phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIP kinase). It is phosphorylated by protein kinase C, and regulates the binding of GTP to G(0) [2]. Neuromodulin contains an IQ motif (see <PDOC50096>).

Two functionally important regions of GAP-43 have been characterized: the N-terminal extremity of the protein contains two cysteine residues which are palmitoylated and are responsible for the attachment of the protein to the membrane; about forty residues downstream is a serine residue which can be phosphorylated by protein kinase C [3] and which is adjacent to the calmodulin-binding domain. We have selected those two regions as signature patterns.

Last update:

May 2004 / Text revised.


Technical section

PROSITE methods (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:

NEUROMODULIN_1, PS00412; Neuromodulin (GAP-43) signature 1  (PATTERN)

NEUROMODULIN_2, PS00413; Neuromodulin (GAP-43) signature 2  (PATTERN)


1AuthorsSkene J.H.P.
TitleAxonal growth-associated proteins.
SourceAnnu. Rev. Neurosci. 12:127-156(1989).
PubMed ID2648946

2AuthorsStrittmatter S.M. Valenzuela D. Kennedy T.E. Neer E.J. Fishman M.C.
TitleG0 is a major growth cone protein subject to regulation by GAP-43.
SourceNature 344:836-841(1990).
PubMed ID2158629

3AuthorsApel E.D. Byford M.F. Au D. Walsh K.A. Storm D.R.
TitleIdentification of the protein kinase C phosphorylation site in neuromodulin.
SourceBiochemistry 29:2330-2335(1990).
PubMed ID2140056

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