PROSITE documentation PDOC50979
Biotin carboxylation (BC) domain profile


Biotin-dependent carboxylase enzymes perform a two step reaction. Enzyme-bound biotin is first carboxylated by bicarbonate and ATP and the carboxyl group temporarily bound to biotin is subsequently transferred to an acceptor substrate such as pyruvate or acetyl-CoA. The first step is mediated by the BC domain common to all biotin-dependent carboxylases [1]. The BC domain can be divided in three subdomains (N-terminal, central and C-terminal). The N-terminal region provides part of the active site; the central region corresponds to the ATP-grasp domain (see <PDOC50975>), which is common to many ATP-dependent enzymes involved in macromolecular synthesis [2]. The ATP-grasp module directly binds the ATP molecule. The C-terminal subdomain is involved in dimer formation.

Several structure of the BC domain have been solved (see for example <PDB:1ULZ>) [3,4]. The central module is splayed significantly away from the main body of the domain and is able to rotate of approximately 45 degree upon nucleotide binding thereby closing off the active site pocket [4].

Enzymes known to contain a BC domain are listed below:

  • Pyruvate carboxylase (EC
  • Acetyl-/propionyl-coenzyme A carboxylase α chain (EC
  • Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase α chain (EC
  • Urea amidolyase (EC
  • Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC

The profile we developed covers the entire BC domain.

Last update:

April 2004 / First entry.


Technical section

PROSITE method (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:

BC, PS50979; Biotin carboxylation domain profile  (MATRIX)


1AuthorsJitrapakdee S. Wallace J.C.
TitleThe biotin enzyme family: conserved structural motifs and domain rearrangements.
SourceCurr. Protein. Pept. Sci. 4:217-229(2003).
PubMed ID12769720

2AuthorsArtymiuk P.J. Poirrette A.R. Rice D.W. Willett P.
TitleBiotin carboxylase comes into the fold.
SourceNat. Struct. Biol. 3:128-132(1996).
PubMed ID8564538

3AuthorsKondo S. Nakajima Y. Sugio S. Yong-Biao J. Sueda S. Kondo H.
TitleStructure of the biotin carboxylase subunit of pyruvate carboxylase from Aquifex aeolicus at 2.2 A resolution.
SourceActa Crystallogr. D 60:486-492(2004).
PubMed ID14993673

4AuthorsThoden J.B. Blanchard C.Z. Holden H.M. Waldrop G.L.
TitleMovement of the biotin carboxylase B-domain as a result of ATP binding.
SourceJ. Biol. Chem. 275:16183-16190(2000).
PubMed ID10821865

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