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PROSITE documentation PDOC00061 [for PROSITE entry PS00062]

Aldo/keto reductase family signatures


The aldo-keto reductase family [1,2] groups together a number of structurally and functionally related NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases as well as some other proteins. The proteins known to belong to this family are:

  • Aldehyde reductase (EC
  • Aldose reductase (EC
  • 3-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC, which terminates androgen action by converting 5-α-dihydrotestosterone to 3-α- androstanediol.
  • Prostaglandin F synthase (EC which catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandins H2 and D2 to F2-α.
  • D-sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC from apple.
  • Morphine 6-dehydrogenase (EC from Pseudomonas putida plasmid pMDH7.2 (gene morA).
  • Chlordecone reductase (EC which reduces the pesticide chlordecone (kepone) to the corresponding alcohol.
  • 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase (EC which catalyzes the reduction of 2,5-diketogluconic acid to 2-keto-L-gulonic acid, a key intermediate in the production of ascorbic acid.
  • NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase (EC 1.1.1.-) from the yeast Pichia stipitis. This enzyme reduces xylose into xylit.
  • Trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase (EC
  • 3-oxo-5-β-steroid 4-dehydrogenase (EC which catalyzes the reduction of delta(4)-3-oxosteroids.
  • A soybean reductase, which co-acts with chalcone synthase in the formation of 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone.
  • Frog eye lens rho crystallin.
  • Yeast GCY protein, whose function is not known.
  • Leishmania major P110/11E protein. P110/11E is a developmentally regulated protein whose abundance is markedly elevated in promastigotes compared with amastigotes. Its exact function is not yet known.
  • Escherichia coli hypothetical protein yafB.
  • Escherichia coli hypothetical protein yghE.
  • Yeast hypothetical protein YBR149w.
  • Yeast hypothetical protein YHR104w.
  • Yeast hypothetical protein YJR096w.

These proteins have all about 300 amino acid residues. We derived 3 consensus patterns specific to this family of proteins. The first one is located in the N-terminal section of these proteins. The second pattern is located in the central section. The third pattern, located in the C-terminal, is centered on a lysine residue whose chemical modification, in aldose and aldehyde reductases, affect the catalytic efficiency.

PROSITE is copyrighted by the SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) License, see https://prosite.expasy.org/prosite_license.html --------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

Last update:

April 2006 / Patterns revised.


Technical section

PROSITE methods (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:

ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_2, PS00062; Aldo/keto reductase family signature 2  (PATTERN)

ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_1, PS00798; Aldo/keto reductase family signature 1  (PATTERN)

ALDOKETO_REDUCTASE_3, PS00063; Aldo/keto reductase family putative active site signature  (PATTERN)


1AuthorsBohren K.M. Bullock B. Wermuth B. Gabbay K.H.
TitleThe aldo-keto reductase superfamily. cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases.
SourceJ. Biol. Chem. 264:9547-9551(1989).
PubMed ID2498333

2AuthorsBruce N.C. Willey D.L. Coulson A.F.M. Jeffery J.
TitleBacterial morphine dehydrogenase further defines a distinct superfamily of oxidoreductases with diverse functional activities.
SourceBiochem. J. 299:805-811(1994).
PubMed ID8192670

PROSITE is copyrighted by the SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) License, see prosite_license.html.


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