PROSITE documentation PDOC00073 [for PROSITE entry PS00076]
Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductases class-I active site
The pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductases are FAD flavoproteins which
contains a pair of redox-active cysteines involved in the transfer of reducing
equivalents from the FAD cofactor to the substrate. On the basis of sequence
and structural similarities [
1] these enzymes can be classified into two
categories. The first category groups together the following enzymes [ 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]:
Glutathione reductase (EC
Higher eukaryotes thioredoxin reductase (EC
Trypanothione reductase (EC
Lipoamide dehydrogenase (EC
22.214.171.124), the E3 component of α-ketoacid
Mercuric reductase (EC
The sequence around the two cysteines involved in the redox-active disulfide
bond is conserved and can be used as a signature pattern.
In positions 6 and 7 of the pattern all known sequences have Asn-(Val/
Ile) with the exception of GR from plant chloroplasts and from cyanobacteria
which have Ile-Arg [
May 2004 / Text revised.
PROSITE method (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:
PS00076; Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductases class-I active site (PATTERN)
1 Authors Kurlyan J., Krishna T.S.R., Wong L., Guenther B., Pahler A., Williams C.H. Jr., Model P.
Source Nature 352:172-174(1991).
2 Authors Rice D.W., Schulz G.E., Guest J.R.
Title Structural relationship between glutathione reductase and lipoamide dehydrogenase.
Source J. Mol. Biol. 174:483-496(1984).
PubMed ID 6546954
3 Authors Brown N.L.
Source Trends Biochem. Sci. 10:400-402(1985).
4 Authors Carothers D.J., Pons G., Patel M.S.
Title Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase: functional similarities and divergent evolution of the pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductases.
Source Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 268:409-425(1989).
PubMed ID 2643922
5 Authors Walsh C.T., Bradley M., Nadeau K.
Title Molecular studies on trypanothione reductase, a target for antiparasitic drugs.
Source Trends Biochem. Sci. 16:305-309(1991).
PubMed ID 1957352
6 Authors Gasdaska P.Y., Gasdaska J.R., Cochran S., Powis G.
Title Cloning and sequencing of a human thioredoxin reductase.
Source FEBS Lett. 373:5-9(1995).
PubMed ID 7589432
7 Authors Creissen G., Edwards E.A., Enard C., Wellburn A., Mullineaux P.
Title Molecular characterization of glutathione reductase cDNAs from pea (Pisum sativum L.).
Source Plant J. 2:129-131(1992).
PubMed ID 1303792
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