Malic enzymes, or malate oxidoreductases, catalyze the oxidative
decarboxylation of malate into pyruvate important for a wide range of
metabolic pathways. There are three related forms of malic enzyme [1,2,3]:
NAD-dependent malic enzyme (EC 18.104.22.168), which uses preferentially NAD and
has the ability to decarboxylate oxaloacetate (OAA). It is found in
bacteria and insects.
NAD-dependent malic enzyme (EC 22.214.171.124), which uses preferentially NAD and
is unable to decarboxylate OAA. It is found in the mitochondrial matrix of
plants and is a heterodimer of highly related subunits.
NADP-dependent malic enzyme (EC 126.96.36.199), which has a preference for NADP
and has the ability to decarboxylate OAA. This form has been found in
fungi, animals and plants. In mammals, there are two isozymes: one,
mitochondrial and the other, cytosolic. Plants also have two isozymes:
chloroplastic and cytosolic.
There are two other proteins which are closely structurally related to malic
Escherichia coli protein sfcA, whose function is not yet known but which
could be an NAD or NADP-dependent malic enzyme.
Yeast hypothetical protein YKL029c, a probable malic enzyme.
There are three well conserved regions in the enzyme sequences. Two of them
seem to be involved in binding NAD or NADP. The significance of the third one,
located in the central part of the enzymes, is not yet known. We selected this
region as a signature pattern for these enzymes.
April 2006 / Pattern revised.
PROSITE method (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:
Artus N.N. Edwards G.E.
FEBS Lett. 182:225-233(1985).
Loeber G. Infante A.A. Maurer-Fogy I. Krystek E. Dworkin M.B.
Human NAD(+)-dependent mitochondrial malic enzyme. cDNA cloning, primary structure, and expression in Escherichia coli.
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