|PROSITE documentation PDOC50944 [for PROSITE entry PS50944]|
The dtxR-type HTH domain is a DNA-binding, winged helix-turn-helix (wHTH) domain of about 65 residues present in metalloregulators of the dtxR/mntR family. The family is named after Corynebacterium diphtheriae dtxR, an iron-specific diphtheria toxin repressor, and Bacillus subtilis mntR, a manganese transport regulator. Iron-responsive metalloregulators such as dtxR and ideR occur in Gram-positive bacteria of the high GC branch, while manganese-responsive metalloregulators like mntR are described in diverse genera of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and also in Archaea . The metalloregulators like dtxR/mntR contain the DNA-binding dtxR-type HTH domain usually in the N-terminal part. The C-terminal part contains a dimerization domain with two metal-binding sites, although the primary metal-binding site is less conserved in the Mn(II)-regulators. Fe(II)-regulated proteins contain an SH3-like domain as a C-terminal extension, which is absent in Mn(II)-regulated mntR [2,3].
Metal-ion dependent regulators orchestrate the virulence of several important human pathogens. The dtxR protein regulates the expression of diphtheria toxin in response to environmental iron concentrations. Furthermore, dtxR and ideR control iron uptake . Homeostasis of manganese, which is an essential nutrient, is regulated by mntR. A typical dtxR-type metalloregulator binds two divalent metal effectors per monomer, upon which allosteric changes occur that moderate binding to the cognate DNA operators. Iron-bound dtxR homodimers bind to an interrupted palindrome of 19 bp, protecting a sequence of ~30 bp. The crystal structures of iron-regulated (see <PDB:1C0W>) and manganese-regulated (see <PDB:1ON1>) repressors show that the DNA binding domain contains three α-helices and a pair of antiparallel β-strands. Helices 2 and 3 comprise the helix-turn-helix motif and the β-strands are called the wing . This wHTH topology is similar to the lysR-type HTH (see <PDOC00043>). Most dtxR-type metalloregulators bind as dimers to the DNA major groove.
Some proteins known to contain a dtxR-type HTH domain:
The profile we developed covers the entire dtxR-type HTH domain.Last update:
November 2003 / First entry.
PROSITE method (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:
|1||Authors||Guedon E. Helmann J.D.|
|Title||Origins of metal ion selectivity in the DtxR/MntR family of metalloregulators.|
|Source||Mol. Microbiol. 48:495-506(2003).|
|2||Authors||Spiering M.M. Ringe D. Murphy J.R. Marletta M.A.|
|Title||Metal stoichiometry and functional studies of the diphtheria toxin repressor.|
|Source||Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100:3808-3813(2003).|
|3||Authors||Glasfeld A. Guedon E. Helmann J.D. Brennan R.G.|
|Title||Structure of the manganese-bound manganese transport regulator of Bacillus subtilis.|
|Source||Nat. Struct. Biol. 10:652-657(2003).|
|4||Authors||Rodriguez G.M. Smith I.|
|Title||Mechanisms of iron regulation in mycobacteria: role in physiology and virulence.|
|Source||Mol. Microbiol. 47:1485-1494(2003).|