|PROSITE documentation PDOC60027 [for PROSITE entry PS60027]|
Contryphans are a family of short disulfide constrained peptides isolated from various species of cone shell. They constitute a group of conopeptides that are known to contain an unusual density of post-translational modifications including tryptophan bromination, amidation of the C-terminal residue, leucine, and tryptophan isomerization, proline hydroxylation and glutamic acid γ-carboxylation [1,2,3,4,5].
Contryphans share the conserved sequence motif, CP*(D-W or D-L)XPWC, that includes a tryptophan or leucine in the D-conformation, a disulfide bond between the two cysteines, and in some cases hydroxylation of the proline preceding the D-Trp residue, Pro*. The N-terminal Cys-Pro/Hyp (hydroxyproline) peptide bond exhibits cis-trans isomerization in most contryphans; however the more abundant cis isomer is believed to be the functionally relevant conformer. The contryphan fold consists of a seven residue loop stabilized by a disulfide bridge (see <PDB:1DFY> and <PDB:1DFZ>) [1,3,5].
This family includes:
We have developed a pattern that contains the two conserved cysteines.Expert(s) to contact by email:
March 2008 / Pattern revised.
PROSITE method (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:
|1||Authors||Pallaghy P.K. He W. Jimenez E.C. Olivera B.M. Norton R.S.|
|Title||Structures of the contryphan family of cyclic peptides. Role of electrostatic interactions in cis-trans isomerism.|
|2||Authors||Jimenez E.C. Watkins M. Juszczak L.J. Cruz L.J. Olivera B.M.|
|Title||Contryphans from Conus textile venom ducts.|
|3||Authors||Eliseo T. Cicero D.O. Romeo C. Schinina M.E. Massilia G.R. Polticelli F. Ascenzi P. Paci M.|
|Title||Solution structure of the cyclic peptide contryphan-Vn, a Ca2+-dependent K+ channel modulator.|
|4||Authors||Hansson K. Ma X. Eliasson L. Czerwiec E. Furie B. Furie B.C. Rorsman P. Stenflo J.|
|Title||The first gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing contryphan. A selective L-type calcium ion channel blocker isolated from the venom of Conus marmoreus.|
|Source||J. Biol. Chem. 279:32453-32463(2004).|
|5||Authors||Grant M.A. Hansson K. Furie B.C. Furie B. Stenflo J. Rigby A.C.|
|Title||The metal-free and calcium-bound structures of a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing contryphan from Conus marmoreus, glacontryphan-M.|
|Source||J. Biol. Chem. 279:32464-32473(2004).|