PROSITE documentation PDOC00238
Pancreatic hormone family signature and profile


Pancreatic hormone (PP) [1] is a peptide synthesized in pancreatic islets of Langherhans, which acts as a regulator of pancreatic and gastrointestinal functions. A number of other active peptides are homologous to pancreatic hormone:

  • Neuropeptide Y (NPY) [2], one of the most abundant peptides in the mammalian nervous system. NPY is implicated in the control of feeding and the secretion of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone.
  • Peptide YY (PYY) [3]. PPY is a gut peptide that inhibits exocrine pancreatic secretion, has a vasoconstrictory action and inhibits jejunal and colonic mobility.
  • Various NPY and PYY-like polypeptides from fish and amphibians [4,5].
  • Neuropeptide F (NPF) from invertebrates such as worms and snail [6].
  • Skin peptide Tyr-Tyr (SPYY) from the frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. SPYY shows a large spectra of antibacterial and antifungal activity.

All these peptides are 36 to 39 amino acids long. Like most active peptides, their C-terminal is amidated and they are synthesized as larger protein precursors. The signature for these peptides is based on the last 17 C-terminal residues, where three positions are completely conserved. A profile was also developed that spans the whole peptide.

Last update:

December 2001 / Text revised; profile added.


Technical section

PROSITE methods (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:

PANCREATIC_HORMONE_2, PS50276; Pancreatic hormone family profile  (MATRIX)

PANCREATIC_HORMONE_1, PS00265; Pancreatic hormone family signature  (PATTERN)


1AuthorsBlundell T.L. Humbel R.E.
TitleHormone families: pancreatic hormones and homologous growth factors.
SourceNature 287:781-787(1980).
PubMed ID6107857

2AuthorsAllen J. Novotny J. Martin J. Heinrich G.
TitleMolecular structure of mammalian neuropeptide Y: analysis by molecular cloning and computer-aided comparison with crystal structure of avian homologue.
SourceProc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84:2532-2536(1987).
PubMed ID3031687

3AuthorsTatemoto K.
TitleIsolation and characterization of peptide YY (PYY), a candidate gut hormone that inhibits pancreatic exocrine secretion.
SourceProc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79:2514-2518(1982).
PubMed ID6953409

4AuthorsJensen J. Conlon J.M.
TitleCharacterization of peptides related to neuropeptide tyrosine and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine from the brain and gastrointestinal tract of teleost fish.
SourceEur. J. Biochem. 210:405-410(1992).
PubMed ID1459125

5AuthorsConlon J.M. Chartrel N. Vaudry H.
TitlePrimary structure of frog PYY: implications for the molecular evolution of the pancreatic polypeptide family.
SourcePeptides 13:145-149(1992).
PubMed ID1620652

6AuthorsCurry W.J. Shaw C. Johnston C.F. Thim L. Buchanan K.D.
SourceComp. Biochem. Physiol. 101C:269-274(1992).

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