PROSITE documentation PDOC00267
Arrestins signature


Arrestin (or S-antigen) [1] is a protein that interacts with light-activated phosphorylated rhodopsin thereby inhibiting or 'arresting' its ability to interact with transducin. In mammals, arrestin is associated with autoimmune uveitis.

Arrestin belongs to a family of closely related proteins including:

  • β-arrestin-1 and -2, proteins that regulate the function of β- adrenergic receptors. They bind to the phosphorylated form of the latter thereby causing a significant impairment of their capacity to activate G(S) proteins.
  • Cone photoreceptors C-arrestin (arrestin-X) [2], which could bind to phosphorylated red/green opsins.
  • Phosrestins I and II from Drosophila and related insects. These proteins undergo light-induced phosphorylation and play an important role in photoreceptor transduction.

Sequence comparison of proteins from the arrestin family shows a high level of conservation. As a signature pattern, we selected a region located in the N-terminal section that contains many charged and hydrophobic residues.

Expert(s) to contact by email:

Kolakowski L.F. Jr.

Last update:

November 1997 / Pattern and text revised.


Technical section

PROSITE method (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:

ARRESTINS, PS00295; Arrestins signature  (PATTERN)


1AuthorsWilson C.J. Applebury M.L.
TitleArresting G-protein coupled receptor activity.
SourceCurr. Biol. 3:683-686(1993).
PubMed ID15335861

2AuthorsCraft C.M. Whitmore D.H.
TitleThe arrestin superfamily: cone arrestins are a fourth family.
SourceFEBS Lett. 362:247-255(1995).
PubMed ID7720881

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