PROSITE documentation PDOC00275
S-100/ICaBP type calcium binding protein signature


S-100 are small dimeric acidic calcium and zinc-binding proteins [1] abundant in the brain. They have two different types of calcium-binding sites: a low affinity one with a special structure and a 'normal' EF-hand type high affinity site. The vitamin-D dependent intestinal calcium-binding proteins (ICaBP or calbindin 9 Kd) also belong to this family of proteins, but it does not form dimers. In the past years the sequences of many new members of this family have been determined (for reviews see [2,3,4]); in most cases the function of these proteins is not yet known, although it is becoming clear that they are involved in cell growth and differentiation, cell cycle regulation and metabolic control. These proteins are:

  • Calcyclin (Prolactin receptor associated protein (PRA); clatropin; 2a9; 5B10; S100A6).
  • Calpactin I light chain (p10; p11; 42c; S100A10).
  • Calgranulin A (cystic fibrosis antigen (CFAg); MIF related protein 8 (MRP- 8); p8; S100A8).
  • Calgranulin B (MIF related protein 14 (MRP-14); p14; S100A9).
  • Calgranulin C.
  • Calgizzarin (S100C).
  • Placental calcium-binding protein (CAPL) (18a2; peL98; 42a; p9K; MTS1; metastatin; S100A4).
  • Protein S-100D (S100A5).
  • Protein S-100E (S100A3).
  • Protein S-100L (CAN19; S100A2).
  • Placental protein S-100P (S100E).
  • Psoriasin (S100A7).
  • Chemotactic cytokine CP-10 [5].
  • Protein MRP-126 [6].
  • Trichohyalin [7]. This is a large intermediate filament-associated protein that associates with keratin intermediate filaments (KIF); it contains a S- 100 type domain in its N-terminal extremity.

A number of these proteins are known to bind calcium while others are not (p10 for example). Our EF-hand detecting pattern (see <PDOC00018>) will fail to pick those proteins which have lost their calcium-binding properties. We developed a pattern which unambiguously picks up proteins belonging to this family. This pattern spans the region of the EF-hand high affinity site but makes no assumptions on the calcium-binding properties of this site.

Expert(s) to contact by email:

Cox J.A.
Kretsinger R.H.

Last update:

April 2006 / Pattern revised.


Technical section

PROSITE method (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:

S100_CABP, PS00303; S-100/ICaBP type calcium binding protein signature  (PATTERN)


1AuthorsBaudier J.
Source(In) Calcium and Calcium Binding proteins, Gerday C., Bollis L., Giller R., Eds., pp102-113, Springer Verlag, Berlin, (1988).

2AuthorsMoncrief N.D. Kretsinger R.H. Goodman M.
SourceJ. Mol. Evol. 30:522-562(1990).

3AuthorsKligman D. Hilt D.C.
TitleThe S100 protein family.
SourceTrends Biochem. Sci. 13:437-443(1988).
PubMed ID3075365

4AuthorsSchaefer B.W. Wicki R. Engelkamp D. Mattei M.-G. Heizmann C.W.
SourceGenomics 25:638-643(1995).

5AuthorsLackmann M. Cornish C.J. Simpson R.J. Moritz R.L. Geczy C.L.
TitlePurification and structural analysis of a murine chemotactic cytokine (CP-10) with sequence homology to S100 proteins.
SourceJ. Biol. Chem. 267:7499-7504(1992).
PubMed ID1559987

6AuthorsNakano T. Graf T.
TitleIdentification of genes differentially expressed in two types of v-myb-transformed avian myelomonocytic cells.
SourceOncogene 7:527-534(1992).
PubMed ID1549365

7AuthorsLee S.-C. Kim I.-G. Marekov L.N. O'Keefe E.J. Parry D.A.D. Steinert P.M.
TitleThe structure of human trichohyalin. Potential multiple roles as a functional EF-hand-like calcium-binding protein, a cornified cell envelope precursor, and an intermediate filament-associated (cross-linking) protein.
SourceJ. Biol. Chem. 268:12164-12176(1993).
PubMed ID7685034

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