PROSITE documentation PDOC00365
Granins signatures


Granins (chromogranins or secretogranins) [1] are a family of acidic proteins present in the secretory granules of a wide variety of endocrine and neuro-endocrine cells. The exact function(s) of these proteins is not yet known but they seem to be the precursors of biologically active peptides and/or they may act as helper proteins in the packaging of peptide hormones and neuropeptides. Three members of this family of proteins show some sequence similarities:

  • Chromogranin A (CGA) [2]. CGA is a protein of about 420 residues; it is the precursor of the peptide pancreastatin which strongly inhibits glucose- induced insulin release from the pancreas.
  • Secretogranin 1 (chromogranin B). A sulfated protein of about 600 residues.
  • Secretogranin 2 (chromogranin C). A sulfated protein of about 650 residues.

Apart from their subcellular location and the abundance of acidic residues (Asp and Glu), these proteins do not share many structural similarities. Only one short region, located in the C-terminal section, is conserved in all these proteins. Chromogranins A and B share a region of high similarity in their N-terminal section; this region includes two cysteine residues involved in a disulfide bond.

Last update:

December 2004 / Patterns and text revised.


Technical section

PROSITE methods (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:

GRANINS_1, PS00422; Granins signature 1  (PATTERN)

GRANINS_2, PS00423; Granins signature 2  (PATTERN)


1AuthorsHuttner W.B. Gerdes H.-H. Rosa P.
TitleThe granin (chromogranin/secretogranin) family.
SourceTrends Biochem. Sci. 16:27-30(1991).
PubMed ID2053134

2AuthorsSimon J.-P. Aunis D.
TitleBiochemistry of the chromogranin A protein family.
SourceBiochem. J. 262:1-13(1989).
PubMed ID2684154

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