PROSITE documentation PDOC50180
Gamma-adaptin ear (GAE) domain profile


The adaptor proteins AP-1 and GGA (Golgi-localized, γ ear-containing, ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)-binding proteins) regulate membrane traffic between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosome/lysosomes through ARF-regulated membrane association, recognition of sorting signals, and recruitment of clathrin and accessory proteins. The γ-adaptin ear (GAE) domain is a C-terminal appendage or ear of about 120 residues, which is found in γ-adaptins, the heavy subunits of the AP-1 complex, and in GGAs. The GAE domain, which is found in associated with other domains such as VHS (see <PDOC50179>), coiled-coils and GAT, is involved in the recruitment of accessory proteins, such as γ-synergin, Rababptin-5, Eps15 and cyclin G-associated kinase, which modulate the functions of GAE domain containing proteins in the membrane trafficking events [1,2,3,4].

The resolution of the 3D-structure of the human γ-adaptin GAE domain shows that it forms an immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich fold composed of eight β-strands with two short α-helices (see <PDB:1IU1>). The topology of the entire GAE domain is similar to those of the N-terminal subdomains in the α- and β-adaptin ear domains of the AP-2 complex. However, the GAE domain has very low sequence identity and homology to the N-terminal immunoglobulin-like subdomains of the α and β ear domains. The binding site for the accessory proteins has been located to a shallow hydrophobic trough surrounded by charged (mainly basic) residues [3,4].

The profile we developed covers the entire GAE domain.

Last update:

May 2003 / First entry.


Technical section

PROSITE method (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:

GAE, PS50180; Gamma-adaptin ear (GAE) domain profile  (MATRIX)


1AuthorsHirst J. Lui W.W.Y. Bright N.A. Totty N. Seaman M.N.J. Robinson M.S.
TitleA family of proteins with gamma-adaptin and VHS domains that facilitate trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the vacuole/lysosome.
SourceJ. Cell Biol. 149:67-80(2000).
PubMed ID10747088

2AuthorsPoussu A. Lohi O. Lehto V.-P.
TitleVear, a novel Golgi-associated protein with VHS and gamma-adaptin 'ear' domains.
SourceJ. Biol. Chem. 275:7176-7183(2000).
PubMed ID10702286

3AuthorsNogi T. Shiba Y. Kawasaki M. Shiba T. Matsugaki N. Igarashi N. Suzuki M. Kato R. Takatsu H. Nakayama K. Wakatsuki S.
TitleStructural basis for the accessory protein recruitment by the gamma-adaptin ear domain.
SourceNat. Struct. Biol. 9:527-531(2002).
PubMed ID12042876

4AuthorsKent H.M. McMahon H.T. Evans P.R. Benmerah A. Owen D.J.
TitleGamma-adaptin appendage domain: structure and binding site for Eps15 and gamma-synergin.
SourceStructure 10:1139-1148(2002).
PubMed ID12176391

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