PROSITE documentation PDOC50887
GGDEF domain profile


The GGDEF domain, which has been named after the conserved central sequence pattern GG[DE][DE]F is widespread in prokaryotes. It is typically present in multidomain proteins containing regulatory domains of signaling pathways or protein-protein or protein-ligand interaction modules, such as the response regulatory domain (see <PDOC50110)), the EAL domain (see <PDOC50883>), the PAS/PAC domain (see <PDOC50112>), the HAMP domain (see <PDOC50885>), the GAF domain, the FHA domain (see <PS50006>) or the TPR repeat. However a few single-domain proteins are also known. The GGDEF domain is involved in signal transduction and is likely to catalyze synthesis or hydrolysis of cyclic diguanylate (c-diGMP, bis(3',5')-cyclic diguanylic acid), an effector molecule that consists of two cGMP moieties bound head-to-tail [1,2,3].

Some proteins known to contain a GGDEF domain are listed below:

  • Acetobacter xylinus diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases A (PDEAs).
  • Bacillus subtilis hypothetical protein yhcK.
  • Caulobacter crescentus pleD protein, a response regulator that controls cell differentiation in the swarmer-to-stalked cell transition.
  • Rhizobium celR2, a putative response regulator protein.
  • Salmonella protein adrA.

The profile we developed covers the entire GGDEF domain.

Last update:

February 2003 / Text revised.


Technical section

PROSITE method (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:

GGDEF, PS50887; GGDEF domain profile  (MATRIX)


1AuthorsGalperin M.Y. Nikolskaya A.N. Koonin E.V.
TitleNovel domains of the prokaryotic two-component signal transduction systems.
SourceFEMS Microbiol. Lett. 203:11-21(2001).
PubMed ID11557134

2AuthorsAusmees N. Mayer R. Weinhouse H. Volman G. Amikam D. Benziman M. Lindberg M.
TitleGenetic data indicate that proteins containing the GGDEF domain possess diguanylate cyclase activity.
SourceFEMS Microbiol. Lett. 204:163-167(2001).
PubMed ID11682196

3AuthorsPei J. Grishin N.V.
TitleGGDEF domain is homologous to adenylyl cyclase.
SourceProteins 42:210-216(2001).
PubMed ID11119645

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