PROSITE documentation PDOC51523
Zinc-finger ZF-HD dimerization-type profile


The homeodomain (HD) is a 60-amino acid DNA-binding domain found in many transcription factors (see <PDOC00027>). HD-containing proteins are found in diverse organisms such as humans, Drosophila, nematode worms, and plants, where they play important roles in development. Zinc-finger-homeodomain (ZF-HD) subfamily proteins have only been identified in plants, and likely play plant specific roles. ZF-HD proteins are expressed predominantly or exclusively in floral tissue, indicating a likely regulatory role during floral development [1]. The ZF-HD class of homeodomain proteins may also be involved in the photosynthesis-related mesophyll-specific gene expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in C4 species [2] and in pathogen signaling and plant defense mechanisms [3].

These proteins share three domains of high sequence similarity: the homeodomain (II) located at the carboxy-terminus, and two other segments (Ia and Ib) located in the amino-terminal part. These N-terminal domains contain five conserved cysteine residues and at least three conserved histidine residues whose spacing ressembles zinc-binding domains involved in dimerization of transcription factors. Although the two domains contain at least eight potential zinc-binding amino-acids, the unique spacing of the conserved cysteine and histidine residues within domain Ib suggests that both domains form one rather than two zinc finger structures. The two conserved motifs Ia and Ib constitute a dimerization domain which is sufficient for the formation of homo- and heterodimers [2].

The profile we developed covers the entire ZF-HD dimerization-type zinc finger.

Last update:

February 2011 / First entry.


Technical section

PROSITE method (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:

ZF_HD_DIMER, PS51523; Zinc-finger ZF-HD dimerization-type profile  (MATRIX)


1AuthorsTan Q.K.-G. Irish V.F.
TitleThe Arabidopsis zinc finger-homeodomain genes encode proteins with unique biochemical properties that are coordinately expressed during floral development.
SourcePlant Physiol. 140:1095-1108(2006).
PubMed ID16428600

2AuthorsWindhoevel A. Hein I. Dabrowa R. Stockhaus J.
TitleCharacterization of a novel class of plant homeodomain proteins that bind to the C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene of Flaveria trinervia.
SourcePlant Mol. Biol. 45:201-214(2001).
PubMed ID11289511

3AuthorsPark H.C. Kim M.L. Lee S.M. Bahk J.D. Yun D.-J. Lim C.O. Hong J.C. Lee S.Y. Cho M.J. Chung W.S.
TitlePathogen-induced binding of the soybean zinc finger homeodomain proteins GmZF-HD1 and GmZF-HD2 to two repeats of ATTA homeodomain binding site in the calmodulin isoform 4 (GmCaM4) promoter.
SourceNucleic Acids Res. 35:3612-3623(2007).
PubMed ID17485478

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