PROSITE documentation PDOC51959
Eukaryotic uridylate-specific endoribonuclease (EndoU) domain profile


EndoU is a family of metal-dependent endoribonucleases that is broadly conserved among eukaryotes [1,2]. EndoU family members have RNA-binding and endoribonuclease activities and appear to be involved in many aspects of biology, including small nucleolar RNA biogenesis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network formation, immune response, and neurodegeneration:

  • Xenopus laevis endoribonuclease XendoU is responsible for processing the intron encoded U16 and U86 small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) [3,4].
  • Human EndoU, also known as PP11 (placental protein 11), has an endoribonuclease activity with placental tissue specificity [5,6].
  • Drosophila melanogaster CG2145 and DendoU endoribonucleases [7].
  • Caenorhabditis elegans endu-2 regulates nucleotide metabolism and germ cell proliferation in response to nucleotide imbalance and other genotoxic stress [8].

EndoU family members share a common domain, that carries out a conserved RNA processing function. The EndoU domain cleaves RNA at uridylates and release 2',3'-cyclic phosphodiester ends.

The EndoU domain is an α+β domain, that contains nine α-helices and three antiparallel β-sheets; the latter are clustered on one side of the domain, whereas the α-helices are largely on the other side (see <PDB:2C1W>) [3]. It contains a conserved trio of catalytic residues, two histidines and a lysine.

The profile we developed covers the entire EndoU domain.

Last update:

January 2021 / First entry.


Technical section

PROSITE method (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:

ENDOU, PS51959; Eukaryotic uridylate-specific endoribonuclease (EndoU) domain profile  (MATRIX)


1AuthorsMushegian A. Sorokina I. Eroshkin A. Dlakic M.
TitleAn ancient evolutionary connection between Ribonuclease A and EndoU families.
SourceRNA 26:803-813(2020).
PubMed ID32284351

2AuthorsRagno R. Gioia U. Laneve P. Bozzoni I. Mai A. Caffarelli E.
TitleIdentification of small-molecule inhibitors of the XendoU endoribonucleases family.
SourceChemMedChem 6:1797-1805(2011).
PubMed ID21805647

3AuthorsRenzi F. Caffarelli E. Laneve P. Bozzoni I. Brunori M. Vallone B.
TitleThe structure of the endoribonuclease XendoU: From small nucleolar RNA processing to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication.
SourceProc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103:12365-12370(2006).
PubMed ID16895992

4AuthorsSchwarz D.S. Blower M.D.
TitleThe calcium-dependent ribonuclease XendoU promotes ER network formation through local RNA degradation.
SourceJ. Cell. Biol. 207:41-57(2014).
PubMed ID25287301

5AuthorsLaneve P. Gioia U. Ragno R. Altieri F. Di Franco C. Santini T. Arceci M. Bozzoni I. Caffarelli E.
TitleThe tumor marker human placental protein 11 is an endoribonuclease.
SourceJ. Biol. Chem. 283:34712-34719(2008).
PubMed ID18936097

6AuthorsPoe J.C. Kountikov E.I. Lykken J.M. Natarajan A. Marchuk D.A. Tedder T.F.
TitleEndoU is a novel regulator of AICD during peripheral B cell selection.
SourceJ. Exp. Med. 211:57-69(2014).
PubMed ID24344237

7AuthorsLaneve P. Piacentini L. Casale A.M. Capauto D. Gioia U. Cappucci U. Di Carlo V. Bozzoni I. Di Micco P. Morea V. Di Franco C.A. Caffarelli E.
TitleDrosophila CG3303 is an essential endoribonuclease linked to TDP-43-mediated neurodegeneration.
SourceSci. Rep. 7:41559-41559(2017).
PubMed ID28139767

8AuthorsJia F. Chi C. Han M.
TitleRegulation of Nucleotide Metabolism and Germline Proliferation in Response to Nucleotide Imbalance and Genotoxic Stresses by EndoU Nuclease.
SourceCell. Rep. 30:1848-1861.e5(2020).
PubMed ID32049015

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