|PROSITE documentation PDOC00761 [for PROSITE entry PS00991]|
Clathrin coated vesicles (CCV) mediate intracellular membrane traffic such as receptor mediated endocytosis. In addition to clathrin, the CCV are composed of a number of other components including oligomeric complexes which are known as adaptor or clathrin assembly proteins (AP) complexes . The adaptor complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to their selection and concentration. In mammals two type of adaptor complexes are known: AP-1 which is associated with the Golgi complex and AP-2 which is associated with the plasma membrane. Both AP-1 and AP-2 are heterotetramers that consist of two large chains - the adaptins - (γ and β' in AP-1; α and β in AP-2); a medium chain (AP47 in AP-1; AP50 in AP-2) and a small chain (AP19 in AP-1; AP17 in AP-2).
The medium chains of AP-1 and AP-2 are evolutionary related proteins of about 50 Kd. Homologs of AP47 and AP50 have also been found in Caenorhabditis elegans (genes unc-101 and ap50)  and yeast (gene APM1 or YAP54) .
Some more divergent, but clearly evolutionary related proteins have also been found in yeast: APM2 and YBR288c.
As signature patterns, we selected two conserved regions, one located in the N-terminal region, the other from the central section of these proteins.Last update:
December 2004 / Pattern and text revised.
PROSITE methods (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:
|1||Authors||Pearse B.M. Robinson M.S.|
|Title||Clathrin, adaptors, and sorting.|
|Source||Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 6:151-171(1990).|
|2||Authors||Lee J. Jongeward G.D. Sternberg P.W.|
|Title||unc-101, a gene required for many aspects of Caenorhabditis elegans development and behavior, encodes a clathrin-associated protein.|
|Source||Genes Dev. 8:60-73(1994).|
|3||Authors||Nakayama Y. Goebl M. O'Brine G.B. Lemmon S. Pingchang C.E. Kirchhausen T.|
|Source||Eur. J. Biochem. 202:569-574(1991).|