|PROSITE documentation PDOC50968 [for PROSITE entry PS50968]|
Biotin and lipoic acid moieties are the covalently bound cofactors of several multicomponent enzyme complexes that catalyze key metabolic reactions. They are attached to a lysine residue, via an amide bond, by specific biotinyl and lipoyl protein ligases. The lipoyl-lysine and biotinyl-lysine residues serve as swinging arms, ferrying substrate between the three active sites in their relevant enzyme complexes . The 80 residues surrounding the biotinyl-binding lysine residue (see <PDOC00167>) display some sequence similarity to that around the lipoyl-binding lysine residue (see <PDOC00168>).
The lipoyl domains of 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes and the biotinyl domains of biotin-dependent enzymes have been solved [2,3] (see for example <PDB:1PMR>). They have homologous structures (a flattened 8-stranded -barrel) with their target lysine residues positioned in comparable β-turns. Several residues important for the specificity have been identified, most notably the conserved methionine flanking the target lysine is essential for the recognition of the biotinyl domain by the biotinyl protein ligase .
Enzymes that contain a biotinyl domain are listed below:
Enzymes that contain a lipoyl domain are listed below:
The profile we developed covers the whole biotinyl/lipoyl domain.Last update:
September 2014 / Profile and text revised.
PROSITE method (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:
|1||Authors||Perham R.N., Reche P.A.|
|Title||Swinging arms in multifunctional enzymes and the specificity of post-translational modification.|
|Source||Biochem. Soc. Trans. 26:299-303(1998).|
|2||Authors||Ricaud P.M., Howard M.J., Roberts E.L., Broadhurst R.W., Perham R.N.|
|Title||Three-dimensional structure of the lipoyl domain from the dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase component of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Escherichia coli.|
|Source||J. Mol. Biol. 264:179-190(1996).|
|3||Authors||Athappilly F.K., Hendrickson W.A.|
|Title||Structure of the biotinyl domain of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase determined by MAD phasing.|
|4||Authors||Reche P.A., Howard M.J., Broadhurst R.W., Perham R.N.|
|Title||Heteronuclear NMR studies of the specificity of the post-translational modification of biotinyl domains by biotinyl protein ligase.|
|Source||FEBS Lett. 479:93-98(2000).|
|5||Authors||Reche P., Perham R.N.|
|Title||Structure and selectivity in post-translational modification: attaching the biotinyl-lysine and lipoyl-lysine swinging arms in multifunctional enzymes.|
|Source||EMBO J. 18:2673-2682(1999).|