The short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases family (SDR)  is a very large
family of enzymes, most of which are known to be NAD- or NADP-dependent
oxidoreductases. As the first member of this family to be characterized was
Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase, this family used to be called [2,3,4]
'insect-type', or 'short-chain' alcohol dehydrogenases. Most member of this
family are proteins of about 250 to 300 amino acid residues. The proteins
currently known to belong to this family are listed below.
Alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 184.108.40.206) from insects such as Drosophila.
Acetoin dehydrogenase (EC 220.127.116.11) from Klebsiella terrigena (gene budC).
D-β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH) (EC 18.104.22.168) from mammals.
Acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (EC 22.214.171.124) from various bacterial species
(gene phbB or phaB).
Glucose 1-dehydrogenase (EC 126.96.36.199) from Bacillus.
3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 188.8.131.52) from Comomonas
20-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 184.108.40.206) from Streptomyces
Ribitol 2-dehydrogenase (EC 220.127.116.11) (RDH) from Klebsiella aerogenes.
Estradiol 17-β-dehydrogenase (EC 18.104.22.168) from human.
Gluconate 5-dehydrogenase (EC 22.214.171.124) from Gluconobacter oxydans (gene
3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] reductase (EC 126.96.36.199) from Escherichia
coli (gene fabG) and from plants.
Retinol dehydrogenase (EC 188.8.131.52) from mammals.
2-deoxy-d-gluconate 3-dehydrogenase (EC 184.108.40.206) from Escherichia coli
and Erwinia chrysanthemi (gene kduD).
Sorbitol-6-phosphate 2-dehydrogenase (EC 220.127.116.11) from Escherichia coli
(gene gutD) and from Klebsiella pneumoniae (gene sorD).
15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (NAD+) (EC 18.104.22.168) from human.
Corticosteroid 11-β-dehydrogenase (EC 22.214.171.124) (11-DH) from mammals.
7-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 126.96.36.199) from Escherichia coli
(gene hdhA), Eubacterium strain VPI 12708 (gene baiA) and from Clostridium
NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase (EC 188.8.131.52) from mammals.
N-acylmannosamine 1-dehydrogenase (EC 184.108.40.206) from Flavobacterium strain
D-arabinitol 2-dehydrogenase (ribulose forming) (EC 220.127.116.11) from fungi.
Tetrahydroxynaphthalene reductase (EC 18.104.22.168) from Magnaporthe grisea.
Pteridine reductase 1 (EC 22.214.171.124) (gene PTR1) from Leishmania.
2,5-dichloro-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.-.-) from
Cis-1,2-dihydroxy-3,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.
-) from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (gene benD) and Pseudomonas putida
Biphenyl-2,3-dihydro-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.-) (gene bphB) from
Cis-toluene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.1.-) from Pseudomonas putida
Cis-benzene glycol dehydrogenase (EC 126.96.36.199) from Pseudomonas putida
2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzoate dehydrogenase (EC 188.8.131.52) from
Escherichia coli (gene entA) and Bacillus subtilis (gene dhbA).
Dihydropteridine reductase (EC 184.108.40.206) (HDHPR) from mammals.
Lignin degradation enzyme ligD from Pseudomonas paucimobilis.
Agropine synthesis reductase from Agrobacterium plasmids (gene mas1).
Versicolorin reductase from Aspergillus parasiticus (gene VER1).
Putative keto-acyl reductases from Streptomyces polyketide biosynthesis
A trifunctional hydratase-dehydrogenase-epimerase from the peroxisomal
β-oxidation system of Candida tropicalis. This protein contains two
tandemly repeated 'short-chain dehydrogenase-type' domain in its N-terminal
Nodulation protein nodG from species of Azospirillum and Rhizobium which is
probably involved in the modification of the nodulation Nod factor fatty
Nitrogen fixation protein fixR from Bradyrhizobium japonicum.
Bacillus subtilis protein dltE which is involved in the biosynthesis of D-
Human follicular variant translocation protein 1 (FVT1).
Mouse adipocyte protein p27.
Mouse protein Ke 6.
Maize sex determination protein TASSELSEED 2.
Sarcophaga peregrina 25 Kd development specific protein.
Drosophila fat body protein P6.
A Listeria monocytogenes hypothetical protein encoded in the internalins
Escherichia coli hypothetical protein yciK.
Escherichia coli hypothetical protein ydfG.
Escherichia coli hypothetical protein yjgI.
Escherichia coli hypothetical protein yjgU.
Escherichia coli hypothetical protein yohF.
Bacillus subtilis hypothetical protein yoxD.
Bacillus subtilis hypothetical protein ywfD.
Bacillus subtilis hypothetical protein ywfH.
Yeast hypothetical protein YIL124w.
Yeast hypothetical protein YIR035c.
Yeast hypothetical protein YIR036c.
Yeast hypothetical protein YKL055c.
Fission yeast hypothetical protein SpAC23D3.11.
We use as a signature pattern for this family of proteins one of the best
conserved regions which includes two perfectly conserved residues, a tyrosine
and a lysine. The tyrosine residue participates in the catalytic mechanism.
PROSITE is copyright. It is produced by the SIB Swiss Institute
Bioinformatics. There are no restrictions on its use by non-profit
institutions as long as its content is in no way modified. Usage by and
for commercial entities requires a license agreement. For information
about the licensing scheme send an email to
or see: prosite_license.html.