PROSITE documentation PDOC00331
DNA photolyases class 1 signatures


Deoxyribodipyrimidine photolyase (EC (DNA photolyase) [1,2] is a DNA repair enzyme. It binds to UV-damaged DNA containing pyrimidine dimers and, upon absorbing a near-UV photon (300 to 500 nm), breaks the cyclobutane ring joining the two pyrimidines of the dimer. DNA photolyase is an enzyme that requires two choromophore-cofactors for its activity: a reduced FADH2 and either 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (5,10-MTFH) or an oxidized 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin (8-HDF) derivative (F420). The folate or deazaflavin chromophore appears to function as an antenna, while the FADH2 chromophore is thought to be responsible for electron transfer. On the basis of sequence similarities [3] DNA photolyases can be grouped into two classes. The first class contains enzymes from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, the halophilic archaebacteria Halobacterium halobium, fungi and plants. Class 1 enzymes bind either 5,10-MTHF (E.coli, fungi, etc.) or 8-HDF (S.griseus, H.halobium).

This family also includes Arabidopsis cryptochromes 1 (CRY1) and 2 (CRY2), which are blue light photoreceptors that mediate blue light-induced gene expression.

There are a number of conserved sequence regions in all known class 1 DNA photolyases, especially in the C-terminal part. We selected two of these regions as signature patterns.


See also the entry for class 2 DNA photolyases (see <PDOC00832>).

Last update:

December 2004 / Pattern and text revised.


Technical section

PROSITE methods (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:

DNA_PHOTOLYASES_1_1, PS00394; DNA photolyases class 1 signature 1  (PATTERN)

DNA_PHOTOLYASES_1_2, PS00691; DNA photolyases class 1 signature 2  (PATTERN)


1AuthorsSancar G.B. Sancar A.
SourceTrends Biochem. Sci. 12:259-261(1987).

2AuthorsJorns M.S.
TitleDNA photorepair: chromophore composition and function in two classes of DNA photolyases.
SourceBiofactors 2:207-211(1990).
PubMed ID2282137

3AuthorsYasui A. Eker A.P.M. Yasuhira S. Yajima H. Kobayashi T. Takao M. Oikawa A.
TitleA new class of DNA photolyases present in various organisms including aplacental mammals.
SourceEMBO J. 13:6143-6151(1994).
PubMed ID7813451

4AuthorsLin C. Ahmad M. Cashmore A.R.
TitleArabidopsis cryptochrome 1 is a soluble protein mediating blue light-dependent regulation of plant growth and development.
SourcePlant J. 10:893-902(1996).
PubMed ID8953250

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