|PROSITE documentation PDOC51032|
Ethylene is an endogenous plant hormone that influences many aspects of plant growth and development. Some defense related genes that are induced by ethylene were found to contain a cis-regulatory element known as the Ethylene-Responsive Element (ERE) . Sequence analysis on various ERE regions identified a short motif rich in G/C nucleotides, the GCC-box, essential for the response to ethylene. This short motif is recognized by a family of transcrition factors, the ERE binding factors (ERF) [2,3].
ERF proteins contain an about 60 amino acid region which is also found in the APETALA2 (AP2) protein, the AP2/ERF domain . It has been shown in various proteins that the AP2/ERF domain is necessary and sufficient to bind GCC-box .
The structure of the AP2/ERF domain in complex with the target DNA has been solved (see <PDB:1GCC>) . The structure resemble that of bacteriophage integrases and the methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) (see <PDOC50982>): a three-stranded β-sheet and an α helice almost parallel to the β-sheet. It contacts DNA via Arg and Trp residues located in the β-sheet.
Some proteins known to contain an AP2/ERF domain are listed below:
The profile we developed covers the whole AP2/ERF domain.Last update:
November 2004 / First entry.
PROSITE method (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:
|1||Authors||Broglie K.E. Biddle P. Cressman R. Broglie R.|
|Title||Functional analysis of DNA sequences responsible for ethylene regulation of a bean chitinase gene in transgenic tobacco.|
|Source||Plant Cell 1:599-607(1989).|
|2||Authors||Ohme-Takagi M. Shinshi H.|
|Source||Plant Cell 7:173-182(1995).|
|3||Authors||Fujimoto S.Y. Ohta M. Usui A. Shinshi H. Ohme-Takagi M.|
|Title||Arabidopsis ethylene-responsive element binding factors act as transcriptional activators or repressors of GCC box-mediated gene expression.|
|Source||Plant Cell 12:393-404(2000).|
|Title||The APETALA2 domain is related to a novel type of DNA binding domain.|
|Source||Plant Cell 7:388-389(1995).|
|5||Authors||Hao D. Ohme-Takagi M. Sarai A.|
|Title||Unique mode of GCC box recognition by the DNA-binding domain of ethylene-responsive element-binding factor (ERF domain) in plant.|
|Source||J. Biol. Chem. 273:26857-26861(1998).|
|6||Authors||Allen M.D. Yamasaki K. Ohme-Takagi M. Tateno M. Suzuki M.|
|Title||A novel mode of DNA recognition by a beta-sheet revealed by the solution structure of the GCC-box binding domain in complex with DNA.|
|Source||EMBO J. 17:5484-5496(1998).|
|7||Authors||Magnani E. Sjolander K. Hake S.|
|Title||From endonucleases to transcription factors: evolution of the AP2 DNA binding domain in plants.|
|Source||Plant Cell 16:2265-2277(2004).|