The GATA family of transcription factors are proteins that bind to DNA sites
with the consensus sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G), found within the regulatory region
of a number of genes. Proteins currently known to belong to this family are:
GATA-1  (also known as Eryf1, GF-1 or NF-E1), which binds to the GATA
region of globin genes and other genes expressed in erythroid cells. It is
a transcriptional activator which probably serves as a general 'switch'
factor for erythroid development.
GATA-2 , a transcriptional activator which regulates endothelin-1 gene
expression in endothelial cells.
GATA-3 , a transcriptional activator which binds to the enhancer of the
T-cell receptor α and delta genes.
GATA-4 , a transcriptional activator expressed in endodermally derived
tissues and heart.
Drosophila protein pannier (or DGATAa) (gene pnr) which acts as a repressor
of the achaete-scute complex (as-c).
Bombyx mori BCFI , which regulates the expression of chorion genes.
Caenorhabditis elegans elt-1 and elt-2, transcriptional activators of genes
containing the GATA region, including vitellogenin genes .
Ustilago maydis urbs1 , a protein involved in the repression of the
biosynthesis of siderophores.
Fission yeast protein GAF2.
All these transcription factors contain a pair of highly similar 'zinc finger'
type domains with the consensus sequence C-x2-C-x17-C-x2-C.
Some other proteins contain a single zinc finger motif highly related to those
of the GATA transcription factors. These proteins are:
Drosophila box A-binding factor (ABF) (also known as protein serpent (gene
srp)) which may function as a transcriptional activator protein and may
play a key role in the organogenesis of the fat body.
Emericella nidulans areA , a transcriptional activator which mediates
nitrogen metabolite repression.
Neurospora crassa nit-2 , a transcriptional activator which turns on the
expression of genes coding for enzymes required for the use of a variety of
secondary nitrogen sources, during conditions of nitrogen limitation.
Neurospora crassa white collar proteins 1 and 2 (WC-1 and WC-2), which
control expression of light-regulated genes.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAL81 (or UGA43), a negative nitrogen regulatory
Saccharomyces cerevisiae GLN3, a positive nitrogen regulatory protein.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAT1 to GAT4.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae GZF3.
April 2006 / Pattern revised.
PROSITE methods (with tools and information) covered by this documentation:
Trainor C.D. Evans T. Felsenfeld G. Boguski M.S.
Structure and evolution of a human erythroid transcription factor.
PROSITE is copyright. It is produced by the SIB Swiss Institute
Bioinformatics. There are no restrictions on its use by non-profit
institutions as long as its content is in no way modified. Usage by and
for commercial entities requires a license agreement. For information
about the licensing scheme send an email to
or see: prosite_license.html.